How to Run Better Presentations & Improve Results

Posted on Dec 16, 2010 | 43 comments

How to Run Better Presentations & Improve Results

I sit through a lot of presentations.  It’s usually people wanting to raise money and/or persuade me of something.  Many of these are not as effective as they could be.

1. Understand Personality Types – One of the benefits of working for a big company (Accenture) was that we had lots of speakers come in and train us in topics like leadership, creativity, presentations, strategy, etc.  Most of them sucked.  But there were some that broke through and made an impact on me.  One of them was about better understanding personality types.  Not in a Myers Briggs way – we did that, too (I’m ENTP) – but it a more practical way: How people respond in meetings.

We had a training session from somebody who put up the four-quadrant graph you see above.  I think the author was Peter Urs but I’m not 100% sure.  The idea is that in a meeting you need to quickly suss out what type of individual you are presenting to.  This has proved one of the more valuable lessons about meetings I have learned.

The first slice of determining the personality type is whether the person is an extrovert or an introvert, which broadly cuts along the lines of whether they’re a talker or a listener.

This is really important as extroverts like to have the answers presented to them up front.  Ever had a meeting with a CEO who was really short with you, demanded the answer quickly and was fidgety while you spoke?  Combine a “driver” with somebody who is over-programmed and that’s what you get.  It’s in their personality type.

For extroverted people I recommend that entrepreneurs have an “executive summary” slide up front that cuts to the chase.  Don’t dwell on this slide for ever.  Drain in quickly.  In my experience extroverts get really annoyed when you have long lead up times to a conclusion.

The reason I point this out is that many VCs and senior executives (read: decision makers) in companies are extroverts and the sooner you understand how to present to them the more effective you’ll be.


Let me use me as an example so you can get inside the head of somebody in this sphere of the chart.  If I have an hour with you I want to maximise the time we have a discussion so I want to get through the slides quickly.  REALLY quickly.  Like many men on this of the quadrant I also have mild ADHD.  This isn’t a joke – it’s real.  Many people have similar symptoms.  People with ADHD get distracted easily if you don’t hold their attention.  So if you dawdle my brain moves elsewhere.  I wish it didn’t.  It does. Men have it more than 3x more prevalently than women.

I’m also reasonably intelligent as most VCs or senior execs you present to will be.  So we pick up the facts from you pretty quickly.  When I “get it” I’m ready to move on.  That’s the way I’m wired.  If you belabor points it drives me nuts.  I wish it weren’t the case, but I’m impatient.  I get it, move on.  I’ll usually tolerate this for 2-3 slides or 5-7 minutes.  Then I’m jumping in.  That’s how ADHD works.

I try the polite version first. I usually say something like, “I know this market reasonably well so feel free to pick up the pace and drop from 50k feet to 5k feet.”

When I’m in a group meeting with my colleagues I can’t always jump in so my brain goes crazy.  I do the inner brain speak, “You’re going too slow.  You already told us that.  You’ve got 20 slides and we’re only on page 3.  I barely know what you do and we’re going into the weeds.  OK, I understand your market is big.  Dude, I get it.  We’re not stupid – you’re talking to us like second graders.  Man, I got so much work to get done, this is killing me.  Aaargh.  Save me!”

I’m self aware to know that some readers will be reading this and shaking their heads thinking I’m a jerk for thinking this stuff in my head.  But the truth is – I PROMISE YOU – that many people on the extrovert side of the spectrum are thinking a variation of what is running through my head when they sit through long, painful meetings.  And I’m hoping you’d prefer to know it.

And because as a VC or as a CEO or senior exec you set through presentations (and board meetings) all the time we’re extra sensitive to it.

What I verbalize out loud usually comes with a filter, “This is great stuff.  Can I make a small suggestion?  Can we do a really quick run through your deck so that we save tons of time for a product demo & questions at the end?”

This fails at least 50% of the time.  The presenter is in his or her own head.  He knows the script he practiced and he’s not capable of an audible.  I really hate to see this happen.  I usually give the advice to speed up to try and help, not throw you off base.

I’d guess about 25% of VCs are expressives.  Most entrepreneurs are.  We’re optimists.  We expressives are enthusiastic, we want to talk and to be heard, we want to debate, we care about you and we also care what you think about us.   That’s why we try our best to be patient & polite.  But if we don’t get the answer quickly enough we can’t sit on our hands.  We need to SPEAK!  That’s what expressives do.


If you present to a “driver” they’re probably even less polite about wanting to get to the answer quickly than us expressives are.  Drivers are “task oriented,” domineering and and low on the empathy scale.  They quite literally don’t feel your emotions – they just want the friggin answer and they’re not shy about telling you that.  They don’t really care if you like them or not – they don’t seek your approbation.  I’d bet 50% of VCs are drivers.  Know that.

Some drivers can be bullies.  We used to call these people “driver, drivers” because they were at the extreme upper corner of the quadrant.  They’ll ask you tough questions and ask you in a not very pleasant manner.  Know that the one things that bullies respect is somebody who stands up to them rather than cowers.  Often they’re testing you without even knowing it.  If a driver starts to call bullshit on your product or market it’s OK (actually, it’s expected) to stick up for yourself.

First make sure you understand the criticism.  Then politely say, “you may be right about that, but here’s why I see it a slightly different way ….”  Make sure you stand your ground (unless you realize on the fly that they may actually be right).


And then there’s the introverts.  They form the other 25% of VCS and senior executives.  I’m going to focus on the “analytics” quadrant because if a VC or senior leader is an introvert it is highly likely they’re an analytic rather than an “amiable.”  In my experience amiable people tend to be more “rank-and-file” employees rather than senior leaders.

Analytics want the opposite of expressives or drivers.  They want to understand the process by which you reached a decision.  They want to bottom-up build.  They give away little and show little emotion.  You’re thinking, “crap, I can’t read this guy!  Does he like me? Is he digging this?  No, he hates me.  He’s not engaged.  He’s giving me nothing. No feedback.  No emotions.”

That’s because he’s an analytic.  He’s in his own head.  He doesn’t involve emotions in his decisions and he doesn’t feel the need to “bond with you” to figure out whether he likes you.  He’s willing to let you talk and talk and talk.  He might be thinking “this is really smart” or he might be thinking, “this guy’s a total wanker” but you may never know until later.  He may just shake your hand at the end of the meeting with no feedback.

Analytics generally don’t want the answer up front.  They want process.  They want deduction.  They want numbers, facts, figures, analysis, proof – dispassionate conclusions.  They hate being “sold to” by “schmoozy types.”

2. Know The Audience in Advance – OK, so I’ve described three buckets of people but how on Earth do you know which type you’re going to get for a meeting?  Well, if the meeting is important to you then you need to find out in advance.  If it’s a VC the obvious starting point is to find CEO’s of portfolio companies of the person you’ll be meeting.  You can also just generally ask entrepreneurs who have presented to the VC but who didn’t get funded (the majority of companies that actually present).

People who want successful outcomes prepare.  Others wing it.

If it’s preparing for a sales, biz dev or other type of meeting it’s so easy these days using LinkedIn, Facebook & Twitter to find out who knows that individual.  If you care about the meeting then put some elbow grease into the planning.

You will have to adjust on the fly many times.  You might have a group of people to whom you’re presenting and therefore it’s hard to balance the extrovert / introvert quotient.  In this case I recommend the “executive summary” version but not going into a “deep dive” on the answer until you hit the detailed slides.

3. Know Your Time Parameters – Know how much time you have in advance.  It’s totally acceptable to ask the assistant who set up the meeting (if there was one) whether that group tends to start meetings on time and whether they tend to end meetings on time.  Ask the other entrepreneurs who have presented to that same person or group how it went for them.

The golden rule for VC is to be prepared to give yourself 20 minutes to present.  Literally – DO NOT go over 20 minutes in your practice.  In my experience in presenting to VCs (when I was an entrepreneur) at least 2/3rds of them start the meetings late and many end early.  So a one-hour slot is going to get squeezed many times to 30 minutes or less.  Have a half hour meeting scheduled?  Fuggetaboutit.  Plan for 20 minutes max.

Ask your meeting host before you start how much time he/she has.   If they know they need to leave early it’s better to know up front.  If they say they have 20 minutes and they’re still there 40 minutes later you know you’re doing OK.

4. Pace Yourself – By now I’ve made it clear.  Assume ADHD.  Move quickly.  If they want you to slow down they’ll almost always tell you so.  If you’re presenting to a VC you can show market data but show it quickly and don’t dwell  on it.  I promise they’ve seen the slide before – no matter what market you’re in (unless they’re relatively new to VC).

A perfect meeting gets through the deck quickly, demos a product and still has tons of time for discussion.  Whether that comes in between slides or afterward will depend on the individual you’re presenting to and/or the group dynamics.

5. Make it a Dialog – You can have an impact on whether the presentation becomes one-way or a discussion.  A discussion is always the best kind of meeting to have.  The best way to control this is to have places in your deck where you break out and ask the other party a question about the topic.  Solicit their input.  If you try a few times and they don’t jump at the chance you can assume that they’re likely an analytic and you might need to establish better rapport before they’ll be willing to talk.

Expressives will bight your hand off to get the chance to speak.  With introverts that will come only when you’ve proven your self with relevant facts & conclusions.

Also remember that a dialog is a two-way discussion even with an “expressive.”  Meaning: You can’t let them do ALL the talking – though they might try.  Don’t cut off their flow but do find a good pause in their flow to interject a point.  If they’re expressives you’ll have to make your points quickly because they’ll want to talk again.  But if they leave the meeting having done all the talking they’ll probably like you but not necessarily be ready to invest in your company or buy your product.

6. Control the Audience – If you’re in a group all of the dynamics change and if there are 5+ people you’re very likely to have multiple personality types.  The responsibility rests with you to control the group dynamics.  You need to know all the personalities before the meeting and you need to have a coach at the VC or customer that helps you control the meeting tempo from the insider (and don’t be afraid to politely ask for help from them doing this before the meeting – but only if you have established a good relationship with them first).

You need to respectfully park questions from “detail merchants” and “naysayers” and promise to follow up with them at the end or after the meeting.  You need to write down key questions & actions as you park them.

I cover all of this in a much longer post on the topic of how to avoid going down a rathole when you present at big meeting.

7. Follow Up – Sounds simple.  You’d be surprised how many people present to VCs and then never assertively follow up for feedback.  And through the years I’ve seen the same behavior with sales & biz dev.  It surprised me.  One of the biggest ways to increase your hit rate of getting deals done is good follow up.

  • Jayant Kulkarni

    Awesome article.

    Though I have a small quibble about the Myers-Briggs test. Like most tests I am sure it measures something, we just do not know what it is. For example, if you took different versions of this 'personality' test immediately one after the other you would discover that the test results would most probably not be consistent. It is unlikely that your personality has not changed in this time… ergo it does not measure your personality!:) The New Yorker (Gladwell) had a great write-up on this test (available online).

  • msuster

    No quibble. As I pointed out, while fun, I didn't find it very applicable whereas the framework above has really helped me a lot.

  • Josh Webb

    This is a lesson in the platinum rule. “Don't treat someone as you would want to be treated, treat someone as they want to be treated”. If you are in the business of influencing people (and who isn't?), you need to know what interests and compels them to be successful. I think this is a good model to start with.

    I think speaking at meetings is a little like writing. You are typically there to persuade, inform, or entertain. The best pitches will do all of these. The best pitchers will adjust the mix to fit the audience and circumstance.

  • Greg4

    Maybe I'm too cynical, but I think most “inform” audiences also truly want to be entertained with just enough factoids and ideas thrown in to let them think they were informed. Conference talks, etc.

  • msuster

    at a conference, maybe. but if you're trying to raise money it's a different story. so too are sales meetings or biz dev

  • Greg4

    Very true.

    This is excellent stuff on presentations in general. Many presenters aren't very good at reacting to the audience on the fly. Sometimes they don't know their material well enough, other times they're just not comfortable improvising.

    I like to think about the actual slides as the middle layer in a pyramid. The tip should be the elevator pitch or executive summary, and the bottom layer is all the back-up data that you used to do your analysis. It's overkill for some presentations, but for the important ones I think you should be able to shift gears among all of those layers as necessary.

  • Andrew Bruce Smith

    I received training in the above about 15 years ago – and I'd agree that it has proved to be some of the most useful and long lasting advice I've received in my career. The type of eye contact, body language and words used are also good indicators of which personality type you are dealing with (left hand side tends to refer to “we” – right hand siders say “I”. In simple terms, analytic = how, amiable = why, driver = what (results), and expressive = who. Each type has an associated “fall back” behaviour ie how they would act to get their own way as a child – and how they now act when stressed, uncomfortable or annoyed. Analytic = goes quiet, amiable = agrees to avoid conflict, driver = autocratic, expressive = explode. Analytics and amiables like to take their time about making decisions. I realised after I'd had the training why my attempts to get a quick decision on a project from an analytic client were failing. Plus I'd been banging on about what great results we hoped to achieve – and he was far more concerned with the process – the detail of how to achieve the result.

    There is a simple underlying premise to this approach – people like to buy from people they feel are like them. If you are aware of your own natural personality type and learn to match your meeting behaviour to the person across the table, you do tend to get a far better response. I'm a natural amiable – being able to modify my approach to dealing with the predominantly driver/expressive clients I dealt with has been very helpful over the years.

  • JoeYevoli

    Great post, as usual. Quick question: You mentioned at the end, “follow up for feedback.” I assume you mean follow up and continue to gauge interest. But, is it ever OK to ask a VC for feedback about your pitch, and how you can improve it?

  • Ben

    Mark, your posts are constantly full of awesome!

  • msuster

    Great analogy of the pyramid. What I should have put in the article is that the best format is:
    – exec summary (1 slides)
    – body (10 slides)
    – appendix (0-20 slides). The goal with the appendix is to have slides ready to respond to anticipated questions if need be. These are the “audible” slides.

    These correspond to your tip, middle & bottom.

  • msuster

    Great addition, thank you. And yes, like Zig Ziglar always said, “people like to buy from people who are like them.”

  • msuster

    Both are not only acceptable but I'd encourage them. Each VC will offer conflicting advice so you just need to treat them all as data points rather than “rule of law”

  • Willis F Jackson III

    These are the kinds of posts that are really helpful to me. I have the unfortunate distinction of being moderately ADHD and also behaving like an anayltic when sitting in on a presentation. Until now, I was never able to really understand how to present to other ADHD people because I didn't understand the two parts of my personality weren't a natural combination.

    But honestly, are there that many people in the startup world that think ADHD isn't a real thing?

  • Mark Essel

    Appreciate the psychological and social profiling of sales. I see your personality scaffold coming in handy far outside of pitches to VCs. While most intuitive folks develop instincts for how to communicate, this will help formalize that process.

  • pardeep kullar

    lol “We’re not stupid – you’re talking to us like second graders. Man, I got so much work to get done, this is killing me. Aaargh. Save me!”

    Glad you said it, I always suspected people thought this way because I also do this. This is a great lesson in empathy. Plenty of people talk about how many slides to use but it's nice to get a feel for the other persons thinking.

  • Marilyn Byrd

    As always great advice! Most people take a scatter shot approach to presentations, but you've guided them toward learning to be a sharp shooter.

  • JoeYevoli

    Absolutely, makes sense. Thanks for your advice, always looking for ways to


  • lisahickey

    Hah, you're not a jerk for telling people what you're thinking in the meetings, you're awesome for articulating it and giving people the ability to crack the code. Interesting to note that some people like to hear the results first and others like to hear the process first so they can form the conclusions with you. In either case, most presentations could benefit from clarity and simplicity of analysis. Thanks for the clarity and simplicity of yours.

  • rrohan189

    Hi Mark,

    I love this concept myself and funnily enough, had read about this and recommended this to my 'book learning' subscribers just a few weeks ago. I have a couple of additions. Aside from understand the 4 personality types, it is also helpful to understand as to what excites them (in my humble opinion):

    1) Expressives/Creatives: These are the guys who stimulated by a vision. They would like to know and understand the big picture and then have you drill into the details. Grand goals help..

    2) Drivers: I agree with your task based description. With drivers, it is important to have the basic facts in place – these guys like plans and are typically efficiency focused

    3) Analytics: Your presentation better have solid numbers. The more the numbers, the more on-board they will be.

    4) Amiables: I will skip this like you have. Less applicable here.

    Another point that I found helpful is that the typical audience will have a mixture of these personalities. So, I guess it is important to have enough to keep them all entertained – it's a fine balance like always.

    Just my $0.02..

  • Maria WV

    The benefit of putting the process-oriented details in the appendix as you mention is that it's *better* to be able to respond to a detail- or process-oriented question with, “Oh, that's in my appendix — let me jump down to slide 30” (you can still salvage the conversation with the Analytic since she'll be impressed that you thought about that point and have your bases covered) *instead* of boring people with too many slides and then losing them (once they're gone, you're not getting them back…even if they're very polite to you at the end).

    As flawed as some may argue the Myers-Briggs is, I've found it to be a great tool for quickly sizing up bizdev prospects — a good, quick read on this is “The Art of Speedreading People” by Paul & Barbara Tieger.

    Also, understanding personality types has also become very useful in *managing people* — as a borderline ENTP/ENTJ myself, it's been very useful when working with, say, an “F” or “S” colleague or direct report to know how to tailor what I say, how I say it, etc….and also for recognizing the merit in what they say, instead of relying on my potentially-erroneous instincts (e.g. maybe that “S” person has a good point after all, and isn't just an unimaginative plodder 😉 )

  • jeffreymcmanus

    It may be useful for current and prospective managers to know that 1) Myers Briggs is totally unscientific and was developed by people with no training in psychology or anything else, and 2) A large company (Wal-mart) was successfully sued for subjecting its employees to a mandatory Myers Briggs exam and sharing the results among co-workers.

    It's a fallacy that extroverts are “talkers” and introverts are “listeners”. It's also a fallacy that everybody who's an introvert is introverted through every moment of their lives. Extrovert/introvert has more to do with how you recharge your mental batteries than whether you're capable of talking or listening. I'm plenty social and I do a lot of public speaking, but I'm very much an introvert; I consider public speaking to be fun, but it's also hard work for me.

    Having the conversation about the ways we interact and process information is useful. Giving co-workers faux psych exams in the workplace and pigeonholing them for eternity is not. This is mostly superstition; like all superstitions it's intended to make us feel better about situations that are out of our control.

  • Kylepearson

    What about not using a slide show? i know a lot of people can't stand presentations because the PPTs are a crutch and a lot of times get in the way of the communication. Ever have entrepreneurs present with no slideshow?

  • Kirill Zubovsky

    Wonderful post Mark, thanks! I am also becoming quite convinced that I've got the ADHD too, but maybe it's just my excuse for not wanting to focus.

  • philsugar

    I recommend Instant Rapport by Michael Brooks.

  • Gentry Sherrill

    I don't know that Mark was necessarily advocating the use of Meyers-Briggs, but aside from that excellent thoughts. The way that we are wired we want to categorize everything and identify patterns, but this sort of thinking can be extremely misleading. I would categorize myself primarily as expressive (with a dash of analytical, though typically I want the big idea and then I'll dig into details) in the context of this chart, but in terms of personality I am hard-wired to be more introverted. Personality metrics vary with context, audience, even just on a day-to-day basis. I think the takeaway from this post is to a.) prepare well and understand your audience as best you can, and b.) tailor your presentation, conversational style, explanations, etc. on the fly if need be.

    And an aside with regard to “scripted” presentations – while preparation is crucial, I tend to have a negative reaction to someone who is heavily scripted in their communication. If what you are saying doesn't seem natural or organic, it seems as though you aren't deeply knowledgeable about what you are discussing, or at the very least aren't confident in your ability to explain it clearly and concisely. Those are both invaluable skills, and significant determinants of success in pitching to customers and/or VCs.

  • msuster

    In no way did I advocate Myers Briggs – in fact, I did the opposite. Other than a bit of fun, I basically said it wasn't very practical for me.

    As for the other model that I put up – listen, all models are just that. They're a short-hand way of trying to view people, situations or markets. In that context and as long as not applied religiously they can be applied effectively.

    And you may be the exception. But I will tell you in 12 years of watching this model I would note that most introverts tend to speak a bit less in meetings than extroverts (listening vs. talking) and people generally do divide well on the dimension of whether they're more intuitive or analytical in decision making.

  • msuster

    You're right – I wasn't advocating. So that I'm not repetitive … my comments to Jeffrey above are applicable here.

  • Jeffrey McManus

    <quote>most introverts tend to speak a bit less in meetings than extroverts</quote>

    You actually have no way of knowing whether someone is an introvert or an extrovert from a single meeting with them. This is why this point of view is a fallacy; you're working backwards from a presupposed set of conclusions. And even scientific psych tests (of which Myers Briggs is not one) can't predict the concept of introvert/extrovert with consistency.

  • msuster

    You have no way of knowing anything when it comes to people but throwing your hands in the air and not trying also isn't an answer. If one can improve their hit rate through pattern matching then I would go for it. Just because you don't want to fit the mold doesn't mean it isn't a useful way for others to develop a game plan.

  • Maria WV

    Right, but you can certainly gauge their reactions to what you're saying in that single meeting… and then alter your approach on the fly to be as effective as possible. Whether or not the MBTI is a “scientific” or “accurate” test is a bit irrelevant here… the point is that the principles of tools like it can certainly be applied very effectively in many situations…trying to “read” people is beneficial in many contexts.

  • msuster

    thank you. still, I know my tone can be a bit harsh some times. At least I usually just keep it in my head 😉

  • msuster

    thanks for the additions, Maria. re: appendix … spot on. It meets the needs of the people who want to go quickly and shows preparedness for the people who expect you to have the details.

  • msuster

    You have to have a PPT. If you meet certain VCs you can get around it by showing a demo and having a discussion. But you have to the PPT to fall back on for the other 90% that want to see it.

  • rafer

    Where do the people who *aren't* in their own heads fit? You seem to have excluded them (us) both left and right.

  • Saran

    Recetnly started reading your articles and i am daily visitor now reading all your old posts. Thanks for sharing.

  • Spencer

    “He doesn’t involve emotions in his decisions…”

    No. Not accurate. I sort of get it the general context of what you are saying about these folks, but disagree on their process to their end game.

    First, all decisions are based on emotions (where 'emotions' equal 'feel'). This is not up for debate. A human being with a modicum level of brain activity cannot detach decision making from emotions.

    But for these folks you put in this bucket, it can put it another way: no decision is made until the expected out come or range of outcomes is quantified emotionally as 'feels good' or 'will feel good' or conversely 'feels bad' or 'will feel bad'.

    These 'quant' guys, the analytics, are the most emotionally challenged as in they are contemplative on the numbers, the scenario or the market BECAUSE they have to get to a place where the 'feel good' or 'feel bad' emotion is trusted. It's not different that you or me, we are the same, as we just let our intuitive run unencumbered.

    It would be a great study to find the 25% quants and measure their returns or hit rates versus the 'emos'. With no data, the emos out perform them 5 to 1. Maybe even higher in the world of start up investing…


  • Scott Asai

    Presentations are 30% content & 70% how you present the content

  • Donna Brewington White

    Mark, this is invaluable. I've never seen it broken down like this. As I reflect back on my experience — at what has and has not worked — this makes a ton of sense. Thank you.

    By the way, once read that people with ADD make great entrepreneurs. Don't know about ADHD's but worked with one who drove me crazy at first but it turned out to be one of the most valuable experiences of my life.

    I do wonder if it's contagious.

  • Carlo Gagliardi

    it is always insightful to hear from you, and – having been together in the Big A(ccenture) – the quadrant with the personality types (Driver, Analytical, Expressive, Amiable) definitely resonates with me.

    I wonder if there is any value in the idea of you writing a piece of “parallel advice” aimed at VCs rather than “presenters-who-present-to-VCs”.
    I presume the objective of a great VC is to have the ability to see the seeds of a great and monetizable idea. It might be that some of the greatest ideas are presented by entrepreneurs and would-be entrepreneurs that are not very effective presenters.
    How can a VC see the Magic Dust when the presentation of it is not that sleak ?

  • hardaway

    Another superb post. I am also ENTP. Had a tough time with all those INTJs at Intel. I also have mild ADHD, I'm sure. I want the chase cut to immediately. I'm very hard to present to for that reason. I love what you said: assume ADHD.

  • Vlad Ivanovic

    Another great article Mark,

    What's your advice on keeping expressives focussed when it comes to discussions?

    I've found meetings with c-suit often veer off into tangent-land and you have to drag them back to the discussion at hand!

    Anyone with any advice?

  • Fashion911now

    Great! I have always found myself as an extrovert and introverts are the most challenging when it comes to ” closing the sale.” This information has helped me understand the different approaches when it comes to the analytical type. I wonder though if it is more helpful to close the sale by asking their opinions along the way? “So what do you think of the info/brand so far?” ;”Any questions about what I have said so far?” Is this a good way to see who you are dealing with, and if not, what conversation capitalization do you proceed with if their answer is ambiguous? I find that if you repeat what you have already said then it becomes annoying and you loose the sale or potential 'add-ons' to increase the sale.

  • Dgrande

    Being in sales for over 20 years, i totally agree with your suggestions. Many times, I have been on the other side of the fence by listening to presentations and the speakers have lost my attention. Great article.